This is a glossary for my use, and to educate others. I will update this post so as to collect definitions relevant to ownership, estate, property etc.
Assess . To ascertain; fix the value of. To fix the amount of the damages or the value of the thing to be ascertained. To impose a pecuniary payment upon persons or property. To ascertain, adjust, and settle the respective shares to be contributed by several persons toward an object beneficial to them all, in proportion to the benefit received. To tax.
In connection with taxation of property, means to make a valuation and appraisal of property, usually in connection with listing of property liable to taxation, and implies the exercise of discretion on the part of officials charged with duty of assessing, including the listing or inventory of property involved, determination of extent of physical property, and placing of a value thereon. To adjust or fix the proportion of a tax which each person, of several liable to it, has to pay; to apportion a tax among several; to distribute taxation in a proportion founded on the proportion of burden and benefit. To calculate the rate and amount of taxes. To levy a charge on the owner of property for improvements thereto, such as for sewers or sidewalks.
Carrier. Individual or organization engaged in trans porting passengers or goods for hire.
“Carrier” means any person engaged in the trans portation of passengers or property by land, as a common, contract, or private carrier, or freight for warder as those terms are used in the Interstate Commerce Act, and officers, agents and employees of such carriers. 18 V.S.C.A. § 831.
Carry. To bear, bear about, sustain, transport, remove, or convey. To have or bear upon or about one’s person, as a watch or weapon; locomotion not being essential. As applied to insurance, means “possess” or “hold.”
Convey. To transfer or deliver to another. To pass or transmit the title to property from one to another. To transfer property or the title to property by deed, bill of sale, or instrument under seal. Used popularly in sense of “assign”, “sale”, or “transfer”. See Conveyance.
Conveyance. In its most common us age, transfer of title to land from one person, or class of persons, to another by deed. Term may also include assignment, lease, mortgage or encumbrance of land. An instrument by which some estate or inter est in lands is transferred from one person to another; such as a deed, mortgage, etc. See also Alienation; Demise; Fraudulent conveyance; Involuntary conveyance.
Natural. The juristic meaning of this term does not differ from the vernacular, except in the cases where it is used in opposition to the term “legal;” and then it means proceeding from or determined by physical causes or conditions, as distinguished from positive enactments of law, or attributable to the nature of man rather than to the commands of law, or based upon moral rather than legal considerations or sanctions.
Person. In general usage, a human being (i.e. natural person), though by statute term may include a firm, labor organizations, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, or receivers. National Labor Relations Act, § 2(1).
Record owner. This term, particularly used in statutes requiring notice of tax delinquency or sale, means the owner of record, not the owner described in the tax roll; the owner of the title at time of notice. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition)
State, n. A people permanently occupying a fixed terri tory bound together by common-law habits and cus tom into one body politic exercising, through the medium of an organized government, independent sovereignty and control over all persons and things within its boundaries, capable of making war and peace and of entering into international relations with other communities of the globe. United States v. Kusche, D.C.Cal., 56 F.Supp. 20 1 , 207, 208. The organization of social life which exercises sovereign power in behalf of the people. Delany v. Moraitis, C.C.A.Md., 136 F.2d 129, 130. In its largest sense, a “state” is a body politic or a society of men. Beagle v. Motor Vehicle Acc. Indemnification Corp., 44 Misc.2d 636, 254 N.Y.S.2d 763, 765. A body of peo ple occupying a definite territory and politically or ganized under one government. State ex reI. Maisa no v. Mitchell, 1 55 Conn. 256, 23 1 A.2d 539, 542. A territorial unit with a distinct general body of law. Restatement, Second, Conflicts, § 3. Term may refer either to body politic of a nation (e.g. United States) or to an individual governmental unit of such nation (e.g. California).
The section of territory occupied by one of the United States. One of the component common wealths or states of the United States of America. The term is sometimes applied also to governmental agencies authorized by state, such as municipal cor porations. Any state of the United States, the Dis trict of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession subject to the legisla tive authority of the United States. Uniform Probate Code, § 1-201 (40).
The people of a state, in their collective capacity, considered as the party wronged by a criminal deed; the public; as in the title of a cause, “The State vs. A. B.”
T e rm “state” as u s e d in rules providing when a state may appeal in a criminal case is all inclusive and intended to include not only the state but its political subdivisions, counties and cities. Spokane County v. Gifford, 9 Wash.App. 541, 513 P.2d 301, 302. Federal Government i s a “state” bound by all of provisions of the Interstate Agreement on Detainers. Enright v. U. S., D.C.N.Y., 437 F.Supp. 580, 581.
The circumstances or condition of a being or thing at a given time.
Foreign state. A foreign country or nation. The several United States are considered “foreign” to each other except as regards their relations as com mon members of the Union. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition)
Traffic . Commerce; trade; sale or exchange of mer chandise, bills, money, and the like. The passing of goods or commodities from one person to another for an equivalent in goods or money. The subjects of transportation on a route, as persons or goods; the passing to and fro of persons, animals, vehicles, or vessels, along a route of transportation, as along a street, highway, etc. See Commerce
Transportation. The movement of goods or persons from one place to another, by a carrier. Railroad Co. v. Pratt, 22 Wall. 133, 22 L.Ed. 827; Interstate Com merce Com’n v. Brimson, 154 U.S. 447, 14 S.Ct. 1 125, 38 L.Ed. 1047; Gloucester Ferry Co. v. Pennsylvania,
1 14 U.S. 196, 5 S.Ct. 826, 29 L.Ed. 158.
Vehicle. That in or on which persons, goods, etc. may be carried from one place to another, especially along the ground. Any moving support or container fitted or used for the conveyance of bulky objects; a means of conveyance. That which is used as an instrument of conveyance, transmission or communication. Term refers to every device in, upon or by which a person or property is or may be transported upon a highway. Term has been held to include a “moped” (People v. Jordan, 75 Cal.App.3d Supp. 1, 142 Cal. Rptr. 40 1 , 405), while a bicycle has been held by some courts to be a vehicle under traffic laws (Richards v. Goff, 26 Md.App. 344, 338 A.2d SO, 84), while others have held that it is not (Fowles v. Dakin, 160 Me. 392, 205 A.2d 169, 173).