Seeking Perfection…?

It appears that the final step of securing interest in property is actual possession. This is the stage that creates a perfected security interest. What does this say about foreclosure? I suppose this is why I have heard you should never move out of the house, and why people have lived “rent-free” for years.

Note that perfection may be achieved by filing a financing statement. This has to be signed by both parties.

from the US Legal website:

“When a security interest in property is superior to other interests and claims to the property, it is said to be perfected. In other words, to secure protection against third parties’ claims to the collateral, the secured party must perfect the security interest. This is generally done by filing a financing statement in the proper governmental office. In many states, the proper governmental office in which to file UCC-1 Financing Statements (UCC-1) is the office of the state’s secretary of state.

PERFECTION BY CREDITOR’S POSSESSION

Loans may be secured by a pledge where the creditor takes possession of the collateral like shares of stock. Perfection of the security interest takes place upon taking possession. If the collateral is tangible personal property, the creditor has the alternative of perfecting the security interest by taking possession of the collateral or filing a UCC-1. For example, Adam borrowed $500.00 from Betty. He orally agreed that Betty should have a security interest in certain equipment that was in his backyard. There was nothing in writing, and no filing of any UCC-1 was made. Nine days later, Adam agreed that Betty should take possession of the equip­ment until he repaid the loan. Betty took possession of the equipment. What kind of interest did Betty have in the equipment? When Betty took possession of the collateral, she acquired a perfected security interest. The perfection dated from the time she took possession. The fact that possession was taken eliminated the need for a written security agreement. The taking of posses­sion also gave her perfection without the necessity of filing a UCC-1. Therefore, the security interest of Betty became perfected at the moment Betty took possession of the collateral.

PERFECTION FOR CONSUMER GOODS

If the collateral is consumer goods, the creditor does not have to file a UCC-1 or take possession of the goods in order to perfect a purchase money security interest in the goods because this type of an interest is perfected as soon as it attaches (automatic perfection). A creditor who sells goods to a consumer on credit and retains a security interest has a purchase money security interest.

Smith sells a refrigerator to Bob on credit and obtains a proper security agreement so that the refrigerator may serve as collateral for the payment of the amount due. Does Smith have a perfected purchase money security interest? Smith does have a perfected purchase money security interest since credit was advanced to enable Bob to purchase the consumer goods.

In an ordinary credit sale of consumer goods, no filing of a UCC-1 is required in order to perfect the secured party’s interest. Consumer credit sales are treated differently from secured credit sales of inventory since, for most consumer transactions, the amount involved would not warrant the expense of preparing and filing a UCC-1. However, if no UCC-1 Financing Statement is filed, a resale by the consumer buyer to another consumer will destroy the seller’s security interest if the second purchaser does not have knowledge of the security interest of the seller. For example, a consumer buys a refrigerator under an installment contract and the appliance store retains a security interest in the refrigerator. The appliance store does not file a financing statement. The consumer later on sells the refrigerator to a neighbor who is unaware of the prior security interest. The neighbor will take free of the security interest of the appliance store. However, if the seller of consumer goods does file a financing statement, he has priority over a subsequent purchaser even if the purchaser does not have actual knowledge of the seller’s security interest.

PERFECTION FOR MOTOR VEHICLES

In most States, a security interest in non-inventory collateral for which a certificate of title is issued (like a car) can be perfected only by having the lien stated on the certificate of title.

PERFECTION BY FILING A FINANCING STATEMENT

A financing statement is a different instrument from the security agreement. The financing statement must be signed by the debtor and give the address of the secured party. It also must give the address of the debtor and contain a statement indicating the kinds or describing the items of collateral. A security agreement may be filed as a financing statement if it contains the information necessary for a financing statement.

The financing statement does not set forth the terms of the agreement between the parties. This is done in the security agreement. The financing statement gives notice to the world that the secured creditor has a security interest in the collateral described in the statement.

Filing of the financing statement is usually required to perfect the creditor’s interest in inventory or the proceeds. An exception is made when a statute requires the security interest to be designated on the title certificate issued for the property – e.g., title certificate of an automobile. A security interest in a car that is inventory (e.g., held for sale by Acme Chevrolet) is perfected by filing under the UCC. However, a privately-owned car is generally protected by a notation on the title certificate.

Place of Filing

The UCC gives each State the option to describe where financing statements will be filed. Local filing would be in the county of residence or place of business of the debtor. Central filing would be a principal office in the State Capitol. Dual filing would be a combination of both local and central filing. Dual filing would mean that the financing statement must be filed both at the secretary of state’s office and at the office in the county where real property records are kept. The place of filing sometimes depends upon the type of collateral (equipment, inventory, farm products) and whether or not the debtor has more than one place of business in the State.

Defective Filing

If the filing of the UCC-1 is defective because the informa­tion in the statement is seriously misleading or filing is made in the wrong county or office, the filing fails to perfect the security interest. This means that other creditors who have liens on the collateral may have a right to the collateral that is superior to that of the secured creditor. A Trustee in Bankruptcy also may have a right superior to the original secured creditor if the filing is defective.

LOSS OF PERFECTION

Perfection by possession is lost if a creditor returns the collateral to the debtor. Regarding consumer goods, perfection may be lost by resale of the goods by the consumer to another consumer if the buyer purchases the goods without knowledge of the perfection.

The filing of a financing statement is effective for five years. At the conclusion of five years, the perfection of the security interest terminates unless a continuation statement has been filed. The continuation statement is merely a statement by the secured party that identifies the original financing statement by its file number and declares that it is still effective. The state’s secretary of state’s office generally approves pre-printed forms.

In most cases, perfection is lost if collateral is removed to another state unless a creditor files a financing statement in the new state within four months after removal. Regarding motor vehicles, perfection is lost if a new title is issued and the lien is not stated on the title.

TERMINATION STATEMENT

Once the debt has been paid, the debtor has the right to require the creditor or the creditor’s assignee to send the debtor a termination statement which states that the security interest is no longer claimed under a specified financing statement. The debtor then may present this statement to the filing officer who marks his record that the financing statement is terminated.

SECURED PARTY VS. UNSECURED PARTY

If there are two security interests, one perfected and one not perfected, the perfected security interests prevails, i.e., is able to seize the collateral subject to the security interest and sell it to recover the amount due on the secured loan or secured sale.

PERFECTED SECURED PARTY VS. PERFECTED SECURED PARTY

If you have two perfected security interests, the first to be perfected (e.g. filed) prevails.

A perfected purchase money security interest in inventory prevails over other creditors (even prior perfected liens) if the purchase money security interest is perfected before a debtor receives the collateral and notice is given to prior secured parties before the debtor receives possession of the goods. For example, suppose a bank has a perfected lien on the inventory of a pet store. If a supplier sells reptiles to the store on credit, taking a security interest on the reptiles, the supplier’s security interest would have priority if the supplier files his financing statement before the store gets the reptiles and notifies the bank of the security interest before the store receives the reptiles.

If the collateral is not inventory (such as equipment), the purchase money secured creditor will prevail if a financing statement is filed within ten days after the debtor takes possession of the collateral. For example, Tenth National Bank (TNB) makes a loan to Smith and files a financing statement covering all of Smith’s copying equipment, including after-acquired equipment. Later, XYZ Copiers, Inc, sells a copier to Smith on a retail installment contract and takes a security interest in the copier. XYZ Copiers’ security interest is superior to TNB’s security interest as long as Copiers files its financing statement within ten days of Smith’s receipt of the copier.

SECURED PARTY VS. BUYER OF COLLATERAL FROM DEBTOR

What if the debtor sells collateral which is subject to a security interest? If the security interest is not perfected and the buyer takes title without knowledge of the security interest, the buyer takes free of the security interest. If the security interest was perfected, the buyer takes title subject to the security interest unless the goods being sold is inventory. Purchase of inventory by a buyer in the ordinary course of business destroys the security interest, and the buyer takes free of any security interest.
– See more at: http://secured transactions.uslegal.com/personal-property/perfection/#sthash.REC2qqWO.dpuf”

States are Countries

Proof that the states were conceived as countries. I have never seen it put so directly:

“28 U.S. Code § 297 – Assignment of judges to courts of the freely associated compact states

(a) The Chief Justice or the chief judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit may assign any circuit, district, magistrate, or territorial judge of a court of the Ninth Circuit, with the consent of the judge so assigned, to serve temporarily as a judge of any duly constituted court of the freely associated compact states whenever an official duly authorized by the laws of the respective compact state requests such assignment and such assignment is necessary for the proper dispatch of the business of the respective court.
(b) The Congress consents to the acceptance and retention by any judge so authorized of reimbursement from the countries referred to in subsection (a) of all necessary travel expenses, including transportation, and of subsistence, or of a reasonable per diem allowance in lieu of subsistence. The judge shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts any amount received pursuant to this subsection.”

So there.